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A conversation with Stephen M. Schneider, PhD, PMP, core doctoral faculty at Capella University (Content sponsored by Capella University) We recently sat down with Dr. Schneider , coauthor of "The Laminated Glass Ceiling", to understand what he thinks is holding women back as leaders in information technology. Below are excerpts from that conversation. Q: What was the motivation behind the paper, "The Laminated Glass Ceiling"? A: I worked at the Kennedy Space Center for 30 years. I encouraged my boss to get a PhD, and she told me she wanted to write about women in business for her dissertation. She asked me to help her come up with a good idea. At the same time, my male coworker, a talented African-American who came from modest circumstances, told me, “In my neighborhood, I am looked down upon for being a software developer. That’s seen as women’s work; real men don’t do that.” I was astounded. Hearing a person say “People like me aren’t supposed to do that,” triggered the idea that this kind of cognitive dissonance relates to women in business as well. I talked with my boss about how there might be more than a glass ceiling inhibiting women from above. It may also be personal, perceived restrictions from below. That was where we got the idea, two panes of glass holding women back. Q: When you went into the research, what were your expectations? A: As my boss wrote her PhD dissertation in 2009, we both expected her survey to reveal some differences between how women and men perceive barriers that prevent women from becoming executives. However, she got five sets of highly significant different responses between women and men. I wasn’t expecting such a big disparity. Q: Why do you call it the laminated glass ceiling? How does it differ from a glass ceiling? A: A regular glass ceiling exists because of discrimination, something imposed upon someone by someone else. The Fortune 500 has a small percentage of CEOs who are women – but about half of the population (and the work force) are women. On the other hand, too many women might be tempted to say, “I can’t be a CEO, I’m a female.” Well, that’s people limiting themselves. So you have a network that discriminates against women, and women who discriminate against themselves. That’s a double whammy that combines external discrimination with internal cognitive dissonance. Q: Is the laminated glass ceiling more difficult to break through? Why? A: Absolutely, you have discrimination from above, cognitive dissonance from below, and what binds the two panes together is a similarity attraction theory. The idea is if you think someone is like you, you tend to think more highly of and converse with that person more frequently. So, say you have a male CEO and a female considering working toward that position. If the woman is going to be promoted, the two have to view each other as being somewhat similar if they are going to work together comfortably. When these factors work against each other, it’s really tough to break through that ceiling. Q: Why is it important for women to break through this ceiling? A: Because women make up about half of the population. Although there are many people who call themselves feminists, I believe we should all be humanists. Everybody should be treated fairly. We’ve got economic competition with China and India, who have much larger populations than we do. We can’t afford to ignore the talent of 50 percent of our population. Q: How can women break through this laminated ceiling? A: It will come from two directions. First, women will need to change many of the concepts of themselves. Many men in positions of power will need to change their views of women. For instance, men’s leadership tends to be more authoritative, and women’s leadership tends to be more participative. A lot of studies have shown this. Those same studies indicate that participative leadership tends to be more effective. If you’d like to learn about Dr. Schneider’s work, read the full paper – " The Laminated Glass Ceiling ". Find out more about Capella IT programs to gain the tools to move forward in your career. Earn a degree in Information Technology > Content sponsored by Capella University Image credit by Capella University Want more? For Job Seekers | For Employers | For Influencers
(Content sponsored by CVS Health) Every day at CVS Health, five million customers visit their retail pharmacies. And from each of these interactions, they gather just some of the data that they use every day to drive decisions. Team members use data, for example, to optimize ExtraCare, one of the industry’s largest and most advanced retail rewards program. They use it to build bridges across data sets to help with medication adherence. They use it to build tools and models to help create brand new services. And teams across their organization will utilize these tools to make data-driven decisions that will influence product development and help operations partners give patients easier access to CVS Health services and help them on their path to better health. Data helped lower patient costs One specific example of data making a difference is in Specialty Medical Benefit Management. These patients have rare diseases and high cost medications. By looking deep into the data, CVS Health saw that it could streamline processes, connect different areas of the company, and ultimately deliver a solution that makes tough, expensive treatments easier and more affordable. Analytics disciplines Curious what it’s like to work at the nation’s largest pharmacy health care provider? “You’ll be impacting the business and driving strategy in a very direct and apparent way that inevitably affects people’s lives and health,” said Merouan Bouzhar, Analytics Development, Strategic Analytics. Check out these five analytics disciplines: 1. Analytics Consulting Services (ANCS). In Analytics Consulting Service (ANCS), CVS Health works closely with their Pharmacy Benefit Manager (PBM) clients to help them develop a comprehensive understanding of their pharmacy costs and utilization and what factors drive them. Using advanced analytics tools, CVS Health also helps them lower costs or grow their business while creating the best benefit for their patients. Working in this dynamic, multi-disciplined group, you’ll need strong technical, financial, and business skills, as well as the ability to distill complex information into actionable insights. 2. Analytics Development. One of the most exciting and interesting areas of analytics, Analytics Development is where you’ll work with business partners across CVS Health to derive deep insights on customers and business process, and then develop automated tools, metrics, and advanced models to integrate those insights into business processes. Teams across their organization will utilize these tools to make data-driven decisions, and your work will influence product development and help operations partners give patients easier access to services and help them on their path to better health. You must be a problem solver and creative thinker who can understand customer needs as well as translate those into actionable, repeatable business insights. 3. Customer Analytics. As the primary analytics tool for all of CVS Health Marketing, Customer Analytics works with stakeholders and data sources from all units of the retail business to help them understand how marketing and other initiatives drive changes in consumer behavior. This helps each business unit make strategic decisions within and beyond Marketing and gain a deeper understanding of patient and consumer behavior. You’ll use analytics tools ranging from propensity and time-series modeling, to a/b testing and data visualization. Strong technical skills in SQL/SAS are a must as is an ability to communicate complex analyses to non-technical audiences. 4. Enterprise Evaluation and Population Health Analytics (EEHPA). Working with many areas of CVS Health, Enterprise Evaluation and Population Health Analytics (EEHPA) has two branches. The first use epidemiology, biostatistics, and health services research approaches to design and evaluate clinical programs and Enterprise initiatives. The Population Health branch develops analytics models to predict patient behaviors and models for population surveillance and intervention. Employees typically have an advanced background in epidemiology, mathematics, economics, medicine, engineering, or health services research, as well as a passion about data and improving health. 5. ExtraCare Analytics. In ExtraCare Analytics, the team strives to understand their customers and create marketing programs that deliver 1:1 personalized messages and offers to each customer. The retail rewards program ExtraCare is driven by the insights and innovations of colleagues like you. You’ll work in a rapid-test and rapid-learn environment and focus on improving customer loyalty by using attributes and behavioral data to deliver the right offer to the right customer at the right time. They have a variety of analytics disciplines on their team, and they are open to any industry backgrounds. The culture CVS Health core values of Innovation, Collaboration, Caring, Integrity, and Accountability support their purpose of helping people on their path to better health for customers and patients, and also they apply to how the company supports its more than 250,000 colleagues. What does CVS Health look for in their colleagues? They seek fresh ideas, new perspectives, a diversity of experiences, and a dedication to service that will help them better meet the needs of the many people and businesses that rely on them each day. Chief Analytics Officer Bob Darin said, “One of the things that's unique about CVS is our mission to transform how health is delivered, and actually solve some of the biggest problems in this country about how do we make medication and healthcare more affordable, how do we make sure more people have access to the care that they need, and how do we improve quality and demonstrate it? Analytics is critical to each of those problems.” Featured jobs Join the team and help find new ways to interpret, test, model, and analyze information and ultimately help people on their path to better health. Advisor, Retail Data Strategy Analytics Located in Woonsocket, Rhode Island Senior Analytics Advisor - Machine Learning Data Scientist Located in Scottsdale, Arizona Senior Advisor, Trend Analytics - Senior Solution Strategist - Finance Located in Scottsdale, Arizona Application Developer, Rebates Forecasting Located in Scottsdale, Arizona Search all analytics jobs at CVS Health > Content sponsored by CVS Health Image credit by CVS Health Want more? For Job Seekers | For Employers | For Influencers
"If you don’t like what’s being said, change the conversation." — Don Draper, "Mad Men" (Read Part 1 , Part 2 , Part 3 and Part 4 of this Death of Advertising series.) The advertising winds are changing. Prior to reading this article, how many of you clicked on a banner ad in Facebook? How many clicked on the thirty second spot prior to watching a YouTube video? How many of you clicked on the first one or two search (paid search) results after throwing a query to Google? And let's say one percent of you who read above did do this – how many of you actually purchased? And then of that percentage, how many paid with cash or credit card and didn't use PayPal, Apple Pay, or Google Pay? Why is paying with PayPal, Apple Pay, and/or Google Pay good for the data business? It allows companies to reconcile advertising dollars with bought product. We are in the throes of going through the same radical change in the late 1990s and early 2000s as online advertising did when they said hits were no longer important. It was page views that meant anything. And then later it became the 'visit' that the view consisted of. Was it an anonymous visit or an identified visitor via social sharing, newsletter sign up, cookies, or using data forensic tools? The change is showing the difference between the concept ad recall lift versus real consumers, watching real ads that are pertinent, to actual product purchase. To the rescue – maybe Social media was the supposed savior for locking real advertising to real eyeballs. However, followers are not always real. Either followers are bots or they are bought . While in the Philippines, I personally encountered several startups whose revenue was promising social media followers in the tens of thousands for monthly subscription rates creating a social media black market . E-commerce with recommendation engines were the next way to lock in a golden grail of advertising such as the one created by Amazon . However, how many ads show up after you have purchased a product? As I am typing this article, I am receiving several banner ads for a product I already own and purchased weeks ago on Amazon.com. Web cookies and browsing history predict the future on the recent past – even if that means you have already spent money. Regardless, the digital advertising space is heating up as Walmart last year purchased ModCloth for $75 million USD after a year earlier purchasing Jet.com for $3 billion USD. And it's more than Walmart ($121 billion USD) trying to compete in the e-commerce space against Amazon's $177 billion USD in e-commerce revenue. Sellable data oil As Facebook earlier this year revealed , it was selling your data to the highest bidder in order for its services to be free. Finally, it was acknowledged that all these online companies are generating this new sellable data oil but keeping it in a black box away from the peering eyes of the consumers who generate it. Another source of this new data oil is coming from media companies such as Netflix. When people talk about this current golden age of television with the help of Netflix changing all the rules, especially exploding the budgets of normal content production, people are less likely to talk about the free cash flow and the $6 billion USD in debt that Netflix currently holds. While it talks up its $8 billion USD in content budget for its pipeline of upcoming shows, documentaries, and series. One of the reasons you won't see Warren Buffett or Berkshire Hathaway not investing in Netflix anytime soon or better stated – ever – is the lack of sustainable value. How is Netflix attempting to generate value? Netflix has been circumventing the demographic dominance of Nielsen Ratings by harvesting viewer patterns of its content called " taste clusters ". Its value then is derived from its big data strategy . A lesson to learn On another front, Netflix says it’s keeping costs internally by getting rid of the outsourcing model of creating content by keeping everything in house. However, the company could learn a thing or two from the failure of ABC's mid-1980s show "Moonlighting". ABC attempted to create its own IP when it debuted "Moonlighting" with Bruce Willis and Cybill Shepherd. It also created a brand new category of series called dramedy. But ultimately, the cost per episode and lack of new episodes caused ratings to plummet. "The Dream Sequence Always Rings Twice" episode for "Moonlighting" cost a then-unheard-of sum of $2 million in 1986 dollars. It wasn't a total failure. "Moonlighting" did inspire recent favorites such as "Community" that introduced meta concepts and breaking the fourth wall thanks to writers such as Donald Glover. Also, both won accolades by several Emmy nominations and generated huge followings. Netflix's "Stranger Things" season two cost $8 million USD dollars per episode. This overpricing of price per episode is said to be what finally leads to an implosion within the industry. However, Netflix's strategy to drive profits is to keep pushing subscriptions, especially internationally. However, the more content that people want to watch, the more sharing of Netflix logins are occurring that is plateauing the rise of its subscription base. That's why they are always toying with a concurrency strategy. Note that there is a direct correlation to the rising price Netflix charges for this monthly subscription to the aggregation of subscribers under the same login, especially when you look at international markets. The commercial cataclysm So we are facing an oncoming train wreck – advertising that can't be directly linked to product purchase, content that is overpriced by those who create it, and consumer data that is not usable because it's an invasion of privacy especially as Europe passes new data privacy legislation GDPR. That means over the next decade a media technology startup must rise that will find a way to create original programming that lures audience with an optimal pricing (not too high, not too low) per episode, create commercials that consumers actually want to see, and give them a one- button solution to purchase without seeming like they are stalking them online. Amazon Prime is nearly there. It offers retail and it offers products to purchase, but it's dependent on its recommendation engine – based on past, rarely present experiences to link the two together. However, 108 Media , the decade-old international media company originally out of Toronto but now with offices in Singapore, Tokyo, and soon-to-be Hong Kong, thinks that there is a simple, easy way to solve all these issues. Full disclaimer – I am the director of innovation. As I have asked during numerous conferences: "Have you ever looked at someone else's ATM receipt which is lying around while you are withdrawing or depositing money?" I pause and then answer, "I always do." The reason I look at ATM receipts is I want to know where I belong. I want to compare myself with others to gauge my success or my "tribe". This is based off of a Map of Me analytics engine we built with SAP HANA back in 2010 – that we have later ported to other open source technologies. I have believed for nearly a decade now that allowing the users to see themselves, or what I call the "art of transparent data science," and allowing consumers to change their behavior on their terms. I have even gone so far to say that banks should give the seven-year-old expired data from their data warehouses back to the customers themselves. Media shouldn't be any different. Allow customers to pay for subscriptions if they do not want to be bothered by ads (as it stands now). But if they want free content, allow your customers to choose the ads based on tasks – grocery shopping per day, per week, per month. Or allow customers to choose tasks such as home improvement or back to school to have ads be shown as options. Also give them the option to choose the things they like such as favorite actors for branding, favorite products they use on a regular basis, and favorite locations – cities, city blocks and/or neighborhoods. Then the customer chooses a piece of content they want to watch and swipe a commercial into the three available slots pre-defined. Now the ads that show up at the top of the options are called "lazy ads" and are bought such as paid search. They can be branded and paid for optimally using Google AdWords. The commercials will be subset by customer preferences but will not be limited. The target for these commercials are simply by lazy consumers who just want to watch the content already. There have been some options of this already, especially if you have watched the recent TBS show "The Last O.G." with Tracy Morgan and Tiffany Haddish where viewers can choose to watch a pre-cued advertisement for 60 seconds or choose an interactive 30-second ad. Other options offer "you watch us, we watch you" analytics where we show you what other people of your same demographic, location are a watching much like Spotify shows your social media friends of what songs they are listening to while you are watching. Mostly importantly, when the credits began to show, all the commercials you chose turn into QR Codes that can be downloaded into an e-Wallet or emailed to you to be used at your favorite retail store. So the more you watch, the more you save. See a demo of the 108 prototype below. The creative cataclysm Right now commercials are thrown at us sometimes at random – as I say, "Like a wacky wall walker ." Sometimes it's entertaining, but mostly it’s a waste of time and you just end up throwing it away. Giving the consumer the choice to choose content plus commercial allows the creative a lot of freedom. Imagine finding the organic clustering of which content goes with what ads. And because of the "choose your own adventure" aspect and allowing consumers to only cue eight commercials in a row to watch content and not create endless playlists of commercials and content you can never get to – it allows for a more real-time analysis of what shows are hot. Also shows branding opportunities for creatives to utilize when locking funds for projects. Because your show makes the products being sold money, they will likely sponsor or do product placements to keep costs of production down. More importantly, it allows for creatives to dictate the story arch of their online shows. A writer or director can choose where the commercial goes – as each story has a three-chapter arch – allowing them to build a show to a pitch and the consumer chooses the commercial break. As opposed to video on-demand services such as Hulu that allows you to select certain types of commercials but arbitrarily they slice content to put in an ad. Maybe they prevent a much-needed beat to happen in a show to build tension. We are a long way from the days of the 1950s New York’s Madison Avenue ad executives such as George Lois (who Don Draper was based upon). Or are we? A radical idea What if the inventory of ads that have been collected over time can be loaded up as options? That one of the preferences of the system is to allow consumers to choose their favorite commercials of all time? Or choose the decade of ads they want to see as a selection prior to watching content? But what if the future ad agencies – equipped with what shows sell exactly what products and when – can create branded ads that link directly into shows or messages being told in stories? Imagine a day when consumers watch all the commercials with the same enthusiasm as those in the United States watch Super Bowl ads. Also imagine the day that the decades of advertising sitting in digital vaults no longer have to be YouTube fodder but can now be loaded up as options to be chosen as commercials to be watched prior to watching any content. Such as Coca-Cola re-releasing its Mean Joe Green ad for you to choose. But that would mean a drastic shift in how media and advertising currently works. It's a radical idea to give the consumer the choice to know what you know about them from a data perspective, allow them to change their own viewer behavior, save money on the products they want to purchase already, and all the while entertain. The future of the creative and commercials is throwing caution to the wind. Allowing the consumer to choose in what direction they want to go. Allowing them to dictate their own conversation. "You can be careful, or you can be creative, but you can't be a Cautious Creative)." — George Lois Article written by Gary Jackson Image credit by Getty Images,  Moment, MirageC Want more? For Job Seekers | For Employers | For Influencers
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